Financial and Banking Terms
Adjusted Results: A non-GAAP financial measure used to assess each of the Bank’s businesses and to measure the Bank’s overall performance.
Allowance for Credit Losses: Total allowance for credit losses consists of specific and general allowances. The allowance is increased by the provision for credit losses, and decreased by write-offs net of recoveries. The Bank maintains the allowance at levels that management believes are adequate to absorb credit-related losses in the lending portfolio.
Alt-A Mortgages: A classification of mortgages where borrowers have a clean credit history consistent with prime of lending criteria. However, characteristics about the mortgage such as loan to value (LTV), loan documentation, occupancy status or property type, etc., may cause the mortgage not to qualify under standard underwriting programs.
Amortized Cost: The original cost of an investment purchased at a discount or premium plus or minus the portion of the discount or premium subsequently taken into income over the period to maturity.
Assets under Administration: Assets that are beneficially owned by customers where the Bank provides services of an administrative nature, such as the collection of investment income and the placing of trades on behalf of the clients (where the client has made his or her own investment selection). These assets are not reported on the Bank’s Consolidated Balance Sheet.
Assets under Management: Assets that are beneficially owned by customers, managed by the Bank, where the Bank makes investment selections on behalf of the client (in accordance with an investment policy). In addition to the TD family of mutual funds, the Bank manages assets on behalf of individuals, pension funds, corporations, institutions, endowments and foundations. These assets are not reported on the Bank’s Consolidated Balance Sheet.
Asset-backed Securities (ABS): A security whose value and income payments are derived from and collateralized (or “backed”) by a specified pool of underlying assets.
Average Earnings Assets: The average carrying value of deposits with banks, loans and securities based on daily balances for the period ending October 31 in each fiscal year.
Average Invested Capital: Average invested capital is equal to average common equity plus the average cumulative after-tax amounts of goodwill and intangible assets amortized as of the reporting date.
Carrying Value: The value at which an asset or liability is carried at on the Consolidated Balance Sheet.
Collateralized Debt Obligation (CDO): Collateralized securities with multiple tranches that are issued by special purpose entities (SPEs). Each tranche offers a varying degree of risk and return to meet investor demand. In the event of a default, interest and principal payments are made in order of seniority.
Dividend Yield: Dividends paid during the year divided by average of high and low common share prices for the year.
Economic Profit: A tool to measure shareholder value creation. Economic profit is the Bank’s adjusted net income less preferred dividends and a charge for average invested capital.
Efficiency Ratio: Non-interest expenses as a percentage of total revenue, the efficiency ratio measures the efficiency of the Bank’s operations.
Effective Interest Rate: Discount rate applied to estimated future cash payments or receipts over the expected life of the financial instrument (or, when appropriate), a shorter period, to arrive at the net carrying amount of the financial asset or liability.
Fair Value: The amount of consideration that would be agreed upon in an arm’s length transaction between knowledgeable, willing parties who are under no compulsion to act.
Forward Contracts: Contracts that oblige one party to the contract to buy and the other party to sell an asset for a fixed price at a future date.
Futures: Contracts to buy or sell a security at a predetermined price on a specified future date.
Hedging: A risk management technique intended to mitigate the Bank’s exposure to fluctuations in interest rates, foreign currency exchange rates, or other market factors. The elimination or reduction of such exposure is accomplished by engaging in capital markets activities to establish offsetting positions.
Impaired Loans: Loans where, in management’s opinion, there has been a deterioration of credit quality to the extent that the Bank no longer has reasonable assurance as to the timely collection of the full amount of principal and interest.
Mark-to-Market: A valuation that reflects current market rates as at the balance sheet date for financial instruments that are carried at fair value.
Master Netting Agreements: Legal agreements between two parties that have multiple derivative contracts with each other that provide for the net settlement of all contracts through a single payment, in a single currency, in the event of default or termination of any one contract.
Net Interest Margin: Net interest income as a percentage of average earning assets.
Notional: A reference amount on which payments for derivative financial instruments are based.
Office of the Superintendent of Financial Institutions Canada (OSFI): The regulator of Canadian federally chartered financial institutions and federally administered pension plans.
Options: Contracts in which the writer of the option grants the buyer the future right, but not the obligation, to buy or to sell a security, exchange rate, interest rate, or other financial instrument or commodity at a predetermined price at or by a specified future date.
Prime Jumbo Mortgages: A classification of mortgages where borrowers have a clean credit history consistent with prime lending criteria and standard mortgage characteristics. However, the size of the mortgage exceeds the maximum size allowed under government sponsored mortgage entity programs.
Provision for Credit Losses (PCL): Amount added to the allowance for credit losses to bring it to a level that management considers adequate to absorb all credit related losses in its portfolio.
Return on Common Shareholders’ Equity: Net income available to common shareholders as a percentage of average common shareholders’ equity. A broad measurement of a bank’s effectiveness in employing shareholders’ funds.
Return on Invested Capital (ROIC): A measure of shareholder value calculated as adjusted net income less preferred dividends, divided by average invested capital.
Risk-weighted Assets (RWA): Assets calculated by applying a regulatory predetermined risk-weight factor to on and off-balance sheet exposure. The risk-weight factors are established by the Office of the Superintendent of Financial Institutions Canada to convert on and off-balance sheet exposures to a comparable risk level.
Securitization: The process by which financial assets, mainly loans, are transferred to a trust, which normally issues a series of asset-backed securities to investors to fund the purchase of loans.
Swaps: Contracts that involve the exchange of fixed and floating interest rate payment obligations and currencies on a notional principal for a specified period of time.
Taxable Equivalent Basis (TEB): A non-GAAP financial measure that increases revenues and the provision for income taxes by an amount that would increase revenues on certain tax-exempt securities to an equivalent before-tax basis to facilitate comparison of net interest income from both taxable and tax-exempt sources.
Tier 1 Capital Ratio: Tier 1 capital represents the more permanent forms of capital, consisting primarily of common shareholders’ equity, retained earnings, preferred shares and innovative instruments. Tier 1 capital ratio is calculated as Tier 1 capital divided by risk-weighted assets (RWA).
Total Capital Ratio: Total capital is defined as the total of net Tier 1 and Tier 2 capital. Total capital ratio is calculated as total capital divided by RWA.
Total Shareholder Return (TSR): The change in market price plus dividends paid during the year as a percentage of the prior year’s closing market price per common share.
Value-at-Risk (VaR): A metric used to monitor and control overall risk levels and to calculate the regulatory capital required for market risk in trading activities. VaR measures the adverse impact that potential changes in market rates and prices could have on the value of a portfolio over a specified period of time.
Variable Interest Entities (VIEs): Entities in which equity investors do not have the characteristics of a controlling financial interest or do not have sufficient equity at risk for the entity to finance its activities without additional subordinate financial support from other parties.