Annual Report 2003 Close Report
Financial Highlights
To Our Shareholders
Management's Discussion and Analysis
Financial Results
More About Us
The Future Matters
navigation spacer
Managements Discussion & Analysis

How We Performed
Off-balance Sheet Arrangements
Critical Accounting Policies
Controls and Procedures
How Our Businesses Performed

Personal and Commercial Banking
Wholesale Banking
Wealth Management
Corporate Management

space space space space space
small photo

How We Perfomed

Economic profit (loss)

The Bank utilizes economic profit (loss) as a tool to measure shareholder value creation. Economic profit (loss) is operating cash basis net income (loss) applicable to common shares after a charge for average invested capital. Average invested capital is equal to average common equity plus the cumulative after-tax amount of goodwill and intangible assets amortized as of the reporting date. Average invested capital is increased by previously amortized goodwill and intangibles because this amortization is (as previously explained) excluded in operating cash basis net income. The rate used in the charge for capital is the equity cost of capital as determined by reference to the Capital Asset Pricing Model. The charge represents a required return to common shareholders. The Bank’s goal is to achieve positive and growing economic profit.

Return on average invested capital (ROIC) is operating cash basis net income (loss) applicable to common shares, divided by average invested capital. ROIC is a variation on the economic profit measure that is useful in comparison to equity cost of capital. Both ROIC and the cost of capital are ratios, while economic profit is a dollar measure. When ROIC exceeds the equity cost of capital, economic profit is positive. The Bank’s goal is to achieve ROIC that exceeds the equity cost of capital.

Economic profit and ROIC are not defined terms under GAAP, and therefore may not be comparable to similar terms used by other issuers. The table below provides a reconciliation between the Bank’s economic profit and operating cash basis results which are discussed in the “How the Bank Reports” section.

Economic profit (loss) (millions of dollars)